Armistice concluded between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany
. [Signed in Marshal Foch's special train at Rethondes, station in the Forest of Compiègne, at 0505 hours.] Hostilities on the Western front cease at 11 a.m. (see 8th and December 14th). Germans to evacuate France and Low Countries in 14 days. New German Foreign Minister Dr Solf appeals for lighter terms and immediate talks (November 12).
The Allied Plenipotentiaries at the signing of the Armistice in Foch’s Salon Carriage: https://i2.wp.com/ww2-weapons.com/w...-1918.jpg?ssl=1
In the forest of Compiègne, the German delegation signs the armistice with the Allied powers, which will come into effect in 6 hours: https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...468586286424069
On “the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month,” the armistice between Germany and the Allied Powers comes into effect. The Great War is over. © IWM (Q 65857): https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...559244095401986
Allied line from Selzaete and Ghent to Thann and Swiss border: BEF stands on 55-mile line; Franco-Belgian frontier east of Avesnes-Jeumont-Givry, 4 miles east of Mons (captured by 3rd Canadian Division and 5th Lancers) - Chievres 4 miles east of Ath-Lessines (captured at 1055 hours with 150 PoWs) – Grammont. Since July 18 Allied Armies have taken 385,500 PoWs and 6,615 guns (BEF share totals 188,700 PoWs and 2,840 guns). Petain weeps in frustration that Armistice has denied ‘decisive’ victory, but at 2000 hours writes GHQ order ‘Closed due to victory
: Vanguards of US Second Army and 3 French corps are within 6 miles of Montmedy. AEF strength 1,981,701 men (1,078,222 combat troops).
British soldier George Edwin Ellison, French soldier Augustin Trébuchon, Canadian soldier George Lawrence Price, and American soldier Henry Gunther are few of the last known Allied soldiers killed in the War. Gunther is killed 1 minute before 11 am.
Western Front, Air
: French Breguet 14 (Minier) carries German plenipotentiary Major Geyer from Tergnier to German GHQ at Spa with armistice terms. They include immediate demobilization of German Army Air Service and surrender of 2,000 fighters and bombers (eventually reduced to 1,700). Special importance is attached to confiscation of all Fokker D-VII fighters and Zeppelins – 2,713 planes handed over by January 16, 1919.
French first-line strength 4,511 aircraft and 61,000 men in 80 fighter, 32 bomber and 146 reconnaissance squadrons; German 2,390 (2,709 establishment) including 1,134-1,296 fighters and 164 bombers in 284 flying units with c.4,500 airmen. Since May 16, French 1st Air Division (600 aircraft) alone has claimed 637 German aircraft and 125 balloons, dropping 1,360t of bombs. At the time of the Armistice, the Royal Air Force was the largest air force in the world, holding 22,647 aircraft of all types, including 3,300 on first-line strength and 103 airships. These were operated by no fewer than 133 squadrons and 15 flights overseas, on the Western Front and in the Middle East, Italy and the Mediterranean, 55 squadrons at home and 75 training squadrons and depots.
Royal Air Force units operated from 401 aerodromes at home and 274 abroad and had a personnel strength of 27,333 officers and 26,3837 other ranks. Between January and November 1918, nearly 5,500 tons of bombs had been dropped, 2,953 enemy aircraft destroyed and an area of 5,000 square miles photographed. British aircraft manufacturers were producing 3,500 aeroplanes a month.
American engineers at Oudenaarde, Belgium help reconstruct a destroyed bridge: https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...335196895711232
Canadian troops marching in the streets of Mons in the morning as the news of the armistice spreads: https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...532755908091904
Germans have 26 divisions from Finland to Georgia, Austrians have 7 divisions in Ukraine.
: Carl Hoffmann diary (Kovno) ‘A Soldiers’ Council has been formed here also
: Allies (53 casualties) at Kurgomin-Tulgas (river Dvina) repulse 1,000 Reds (over 600 casualties) and gunboats.
: 80,000 Germans (53 battalions or 6 divisions) with 338 guns on Southeastern (Danube) front. British effective other ranks strength 103,996 (November 1 ration strength 158,707).
Naval and Overseas Operations
: Armistice terms stipulate delivery of 11 German battleships, 5 battlecruisers, 8 cruisers, 50 destroyers (all modern warships) and all U-boats to internment. Germany to retain only 6 battleships, 6 cruisers and 24 destroyers (all oldest classes). Record 20 Q-ships under SNO Scotland. Germany has 171 U-boats plus 149 building.
Naval Council of 21 in command at Wilhemshaven.
: Light cruiser Carlisle
completed by Fairfield Yard, joins Harwich Force.
: Emperor Karl renounces rule (and as King of Hungary on November 13). Minister-President Heinrich Lammasch and last Imperial Cabinet resign. Emperor accepts his last Minister-President’s resignation. Imperial family leave Schoenbrunn for Eckartsau, 37 1/2 miles northeast of Vienna.
Karl I, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, relinquishes his political power over Austria: https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...578047890092032
: Berlin workers delegates appoint council of Six Peoples Commissars (non-Bolshevik). Abdication of Grand Dukes of Hesse, Mecklenburg and Saxe-Weimar. King of Saxony and Grand Duke of Oldenburg dethroned.
Appeal of Dr. Wilhelm Solf, German Foreign Minister, to President Wilson for mitigation of armistice terms.
Demonstrations continue in Germany a day after the proclamation of the German Republic: © IWM (Q 88160): https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...289900312535040
Firefights also break out in Berlin. Armed men at the Schloßplatz: © IWM (Q 52733): https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...304999932817413
Estonia: New National Government formed in Estonia (see 16th, and January 13th).
: Directorate formed at Warsaw, deposes Regency Council.
: From 1100 hours church bells salute the Armistice, Paris anti-aircraft guns fire 1,200 shots.
Citizens in Paris go out into the streets to celebrate the end of war: https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...566731511042049
A flag vendor and a boy in Paris making the most of the celebrations: https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...608255250685953
: King’s message to Empire. Joyous pandemonium in London and elsewhere from 1100 hours. CIGS Wilson records No 10 dinner ‘Lloyd George wants to shoot the Kaiser. Winston does not …
’ War Risks Insurance reduced 50% since November 1.
British Government recognize Latvian Provisional Government as independent (see January 12th).
American troopship arrives in England as the war comes to a close: https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...547847915585536
Crowds celebrate at the Victoria Memorial outside Buckingham Palace: © IWM (Q 47894): https://twitter.com/CenturyAgoToday...638451035074561
: First German Army Soviet formed at Malines.
: AP flash brings armistice news at 0300 hours. Wilson reads terms to joint session of Congress. Greatest nationwide celebration ever known. Wilson Washington speech says Allies will feed Central Europe.
: Kaiser given refuge at Count Bentinck’s Amerongen moated house near Utrecht.
: Bolshevik Mission expelled.